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Low Inflammatory Diet in Early Pregnancy May Cut Risk for GDM

Greater adherence to healthier diet among pregnant women with overweight or obesity linked to lower risk for gestational diabetes mellitus

TUESDAY, Jan. 4, 2022 (HealthDay News) — A healthy diet that limits foods with high inflammatory potential in early pregnancy may cut the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), according to a study recently published in the European Journal of Nutrition.

Lotta Pajunen, from the University of Turku in Finland, and colleagues investigated the role of diet in developing GDM. The analysis included 351 overweight or obese women who kept three-day food diaries in early pregnancy.

The researchers found that higher adherence to a healthier dietary pattern, characterized by consumption of vegetables and rye bread, was associated with a reduced risk for GDM (adjusted odds ratio, 0.27). A proinflammatory diet, indicated by a higher energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII) score, was associated with a higher risk for GDM (adjusted odds ratio, 1.27) for each E-DII point. Intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, and trans fatty acids was higher and intake of fiber was lower in women developing GDM versus women not developing GDM. GDM was also significantly predicted by intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, and trans fatty acids.

“Eating vegetables, fruit, berries, and wholegrain products as well as unsaturated fats is particularly important. These nutrients and foods reduce inflammation in the body and therefore also the risk of gestational diabetes,” a coauthor said in a statement. “Mothers who are overweight or obese already before the pregnancy would most likely benefit from dietary guidance in early pregnancy.”

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