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Cancer Risk Modestly Elevated With Chronic Kidney Disease

Lower eGFR linked to elevated cancer risk relative to eGFR of 90 to 104 mL/min

MONDAY, March 18, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a modestly elevated cancer risk, according to a study published online March 14 in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

Hong Xu, Ph.D., from the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, and colleagues quantified the correlations between baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the incidence of cancer among 719,033 Swedish adults aged ≥40 years with CKD and no previous history of cancer. Participants were followed for a median of five years.

Throughout 3,338,226 person-years, the researchers identified 64,319 cases of cancer affecting 9 percent of participants. A U-shaped relationship was identified between eGFR and cancer incidence. Relative to an eGFR of 90 to 104 mL/min, lower eGFR was correlated with an elevated cancer risk (adjusted hazard ratios, 1.08 and 1.24 for eGFR 30 to 59 and <30 mL/min, respectively). Higher risks for skin, urogenital, prostate, and hematologic cancers were seen in association with lower eGFR strata. Throughout follow-up, there was a significant increase in any cancer risk as well as skin (nonmelanoma) and urogenital cancer risks; these risks were higher in the first 12 months postregistration. After the first 12 months of observation, associations with hematologic and prostate cancers were abrogated.

“Our findings may help health care policy makers to develop and implement appropriate strategies for cancer screening and monitoring in the context of CKD as well as help health service planning,” the authors write.

Several authors disclosed financial ties to the pharmaceutical and medical device industries.

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