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Review Links Periodontitis to Increased Odds for Hypertension

Five of 12 interventional studies confirmed reduction in hypertension after periodontal treatment

TUESDAY, Oct. 22, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Periodontitis (PD) is a possible risk factor for hypertension, according to a review published online Sept. 24 in Cardiovascular Research.

Eva Muñoz Aguilera, from University College London, and colleagues conducted a systematic review to examine the association between periodontitis and hypertension. Data from 40 studies were included in quantitative meta-analyses.

The researchers found that diagnoses of moderate-severe and severe PD were associated with an increased risk for hypertension (odds ratios, 1.22 [95 percent confidence interval (CI), 1.10 to 1.35] and 1.49 [95 percent CI, 1.09 to 2.05], respectively). In prospective studies, the researchers confirmed the association of PD diagnosis with an increased likelihood of hypertension occurrence (odds ratio, 1.68; 95 percent CI, 0.85 to 3.35). Compared with non-PD, patients with PD exhibited higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure (weighted mean differences, 4.49 mm Hg [95 percent CI, 2.88 to 6.11] and 2.03 mm Hg [95 percent CI, 1.25 to 2.81], respectively). Five of 12 interventional studies confirmed a reduction in BP following treatment of PD, with reductions of 3 to 12.5 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0 to 10 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure.

“Our findings highlight the potential to improve cardiovascular outcomes by addressing poor oral health in the general population,” the authors write. “Longer and larger studies are needed however to determine whether periodontal treatment [benefits] patients in terms of cardiovascular health, ultimately resulting in reduced morbidity and mortality.”

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